Juul believes that there’s something missing from academic game studies.
We are beginning to understand that games are not static artifacts. Games are dynamically created and changed by the players who engage with them and the cultures within which they are played. Each play session is a completely different experience with different motivating factors and very different meanings.
Games can be: -rule based systems that you master - fictional worlds that you imagine - social phenomena that you play with other people - self-expressions that show who you are.
And there are this many different types of “meanings” at play in video games because 1) there is no authority for interpretation and 2) games are fundamentally ambiguous. Their experiences are re-authored with every iteration, with every player.